China intellectual property lawyersWhen our law firm started drafting manufacturing agreements on behalf of Western companies having their products made by Chinese manufacturers, we mostly dealt with simple items like socks, shoes, rubber duckies, etc. Those contracts were relatively fast and cheap and easy. The core of the contract was essentially something like this: “Your Chinese company will make rubber duckies out of these specific materials and with these additional specifications and you will deliver them to our facility in the United States or in Spain or in Australia within 45 days after we issue our purchase order.” Becuase these contracts were so routine and so simple, we virtually always always charged a flat fee for them.

Those days are mostly over for China, though these sorts of agreements are still relatively common for Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand and Sri Lanka. These days the typical manufacturing agreement on which our China lawyers work is far more complicated because the products made in China are far more complicated. And with complicated products comes complicated intellectual property issues involving trade secrets, trademarks, copyrights and patents.

I called up an email this morning to review a China intellectual property issue on an existing matter. That first email led me to a couple more emails and today’s idea for a blog post. The below is a merger of three emails (further modified to remove any identifiers), which should be helpful to anyone looking to manufacture IP sensitive products in China, especially those that include software.

Oh, and for further incentive to get you to parse through the below email, go read China and The Internet of Things and How to Destroy Your Own Company to see what can happen if you fail to realize how critical intellectual property protections have become when having your products made in China.


We still need more clarification regarding the issue of ownership of the various technologies that will be going into your product.

Based on my review, there are four separate forms of technology embodied in this single product:

  1. The case or external shell.
  2. The internal mechanism: electrical/mechanical.
  3. The internal mechanism: firmware.
  4. The smartphone/computer application software.

Based on this, my questions are as follows:

1. For the external shell (Item 1):

a. Who will do the design? Who will prepare the actual CAD drawings for the mold? Who will fabricate the physical molds?

b. How and when will you pay for the molds to be made? Will you do this as part of a separate contract or will you fold this process into the manufacturing agreement?

c. Note that you will need to be clear that you own the shell design. If it will be done before/outside the manufacturing agreement, we will a clear document that provides for ownership and control. Note that if a third party does the mold (which is likely), there is a risk of the third party appropriating the design and selling it to someone else. However, for this specialized product, the risk is low.

2. For the application software (Item 4):

a. Who will create the application software? If it will be outsourced, you need to know. If it will be done in-house, will it be done by _________? You need to know.

b. Has a fee and timeline been determined for the software application? If so, what is it? If not, when will this be done?

c. What if the application software does not work? What if the application software does not have the “look and feel” you want? How will you work with the programmers to ensure all this is done how you want?

d. The fee, once determined, will be amortized against the purchase of the first 200 units. Does this mean the price of each of the first 200 units will be increased by 1/200 of the application software fee? What happens if you never buy more than 200 units? What happens if you end up buying only 100 units? You need to determine the fee to be sure this makes economic sense for you.

e. Will you own the application software copyright for the entire world? If so, we will need to specifically provide that the application software will be done as a “work for hire” and that your company will own the copyright on it. If you own the copyright, the Chinese side cannot sell the software to anyone else or use it for their own purposes. Will they agree to this? If the Chinese side is sophisticated, they will NOT provide you with the software copyright because they plan to reuse the core software for other projects. In fact, they may not even own the copyright to the core software. They may instead agree only to provide you with the rights to the “look and feel.”  Many U.S. buyers ignore these software issues, leading to many problems down the road. You may recall that the multi-billion dollar legal battle between Apple and Samsung is centered on these difficult “look and feel” issues.

3. For the electro-mechanical/firmware (Items 2 and 3).

It is not clear who will own and control this item because there is an internal contradiction in the description. On the one hand, the Chinese side says it will provide you with all data necessary for your company to patent and copyright items 2 and 3 in the U.S. (Note that firmware is protected by copyright, as are mask works and related). This means you would then own 100% of the rights to items 2 and 3 for the United States: permanently and forever, to the exclusion of everyone, including _________. This means you would not even be required to purchase the product from ________ because you could have it manufactured by anyone in any location where a conflicting patent and copyright has not been registered. It also means even if you do not secure a patent or copyright on this, you still have an exclusive and perpetual license to the technology for the U.S. This perpetual license would have essentially the same effect as a patent or copyright registration with respect to your relation to __________ and its attempts to license to any third parties in the future. The point here is that a patent is not revokable; once you have it, it is yours for the term. On the other hand, the Chinese side wants to have the right to allow other U.S. entities to make use of the technology to sell competing products in the United States if your company does not meet certain sales quotas. Under this approach, the Chinese side is providing you with essentially a limited license with these terms: a) the product must be purchased from _________ and no one else, b) your sales territory is limited to the United Sates, and c) your license terminates if you fail to meet the sales quota. This has in fact become the normal approach for sophisticated Chinese companies making products like yours.

The issue though is that these two approaches are contradictory. Only one can stand. So which one is it? As I have noted, the second option (limited license) is most common. However, that means your company’s product development would be placed on a very weak footing because your entire product line could be terminated if you fail to meet the sales quotas. This termination could come either from the license becoming non-exclusive, (allowing the Chinese side to license to and manufacture for other U.S. companies) or from the Chinese side terminating the agreement.

This issue goes to the core of your agreement and so it is crucial that we get clear on on this for the agreement. As noted, most Chinese manufacturers/designers will take the limited license approach instead of terminating the agreement. If this is their approach here, their offer to provide you information for a patent application is not consistent because a limited license and absolute ownership rights are contradictory.

4. There is an additional issue related to the rights of non-U.S. entities to sell into the U.S. market. This can only be resolved after we get answers to the questions above.

5. There is an additional issue concerning what to do if _________ is unable or unwilling to manufacture your product at an acceptable price, at acceptable quantities, with acceptable delivery dates and at an acceptable level of quality. If ________ owns the core technology and is merely providing you with a limited license you could find yourself “stuck” with bad pricing, bad quantities, bad delivery times and/or bad quality products. The normal remedy would be for us to state that if any of the above problems occur, you have the right to have your product made by some other manufacturer and that ________ will provide you with a license to the technology that will allow this. Though this is the normal remedy, many Chinese manufacturers strongly resist this, putting you in a difficult position. You have indicated that ____________ will be required to accept purchase orders that meet the price agreement. You have also provided for penalties for late delivery and for defect issues. Though this is not ideal, it may be the best you can do in your current bargaining position. So the key issue is whether you are required to purchase from __________ or not. If you are required to purchase exclusively from ___________, you will need to face the fact that you are in a very weak bargaining position on many critical business issues and ____________ can fairly easily make life difficult for you by forcing you to fail to meet the sales quotas that will then enable it to start working with U.S. company that competes with you.

Please advise on the above. After we get clear on these various issues, I can begin drafting the agreement. I realize these issues are difficult, but it it is best to take a clear position from the start. Please let me know if you have any questions or if you need any additional explanations.

China NNN Agreement Lawyers
How to execute a China NNN Agreement

This post is nothing more than described in the title. It focuses on what you typically should do by way of contract signing formalities for your China NNN Agreement. It answers the following question we frequently get from our blog readers and from our own clients: What exact steps should I take to get a China NNN Agreement signed?

The below is the typical response from our China lawyers:

The next step is to send this bilingual agreement to the Chinese side for review. If the Chinese side accepts all terms you should sign, date and then submit the contract to the Chinese side. Then don’t do anything — and especially do not send any confidential information regarding your product or your molds — until the Chinese side returns with a fully executed version, that it has signed, dated and chopped. You will want to make sure the exhibit listing your confidential information is properly filled out and dated, signed and chopped by the Chinese side. And you want to make sure of this not only at the time of first execution, but also every single time a new product item or a new mold item is entered onto the record. For your own protection, you will want to make sure you in the end hold on to at least one original, fully executed agreement.

Please note that though the above says “bilingual agreement,” the official portion of the agreement is strictly in Chinese. The English language portion is strictly a translation for the benefit/convenience of our clients. I am careful to make this distinction because nearly all of the contracts we draft call for Chinese as the official language and we never draft contracts where more than one language is the official language. For why this distinction is so crucial, I urge you to read Silly Rabbit, The Chinese Language Contract Is What Matter and Dual Language China Contracts Double Your Chance Of Disaster.

How to sell to ChinaThis is the first in an eventual series of posts I will do on the business and legal issues related to foreign companies selling high value equipment to Chinese companies. The behavior of Chinese companies in this area is quite uniform, and it is therefore possible for me to present a uniform approach to sales into China. Before moving to a detailed analysis, it will be best to step back and consider how Chinese companies view the process. Once the fundamental viewpoint of the Chinese side is understood, it is then much easier to determine how to craft an effective sales strategy for China.

Chinese companies purchased a fair amount of advanced equipment from foreign companies in the 90s. But these purchases slowed considerably as Chinese companies shifted their focus to manufacturing for the export market. However, these export oriented Chinese companies have recently started showing a renewed interest in purchasing advanced equipment from foreign manufacturers. That China is now Germany’s largest trading partner is good proof of this.

The reason Chinese companies are buying more advanced equipment from overseas is clear to anyone who visits Chinese factories. The simple truth is that much of the production equipment in these factories is old technology nearing the end of its useful life. The Chinese businesses that have made China the factory of the world have  pushed their manpower and outdated tools to the limit and for them to continue to compete in the world manufacturing market, technical upgrades are required. Chinese companies are mostly unable to innovate in this area on their own; so they are reluctantly making purchases from foreign entities.

Though the world has greatly changed since the 90s, the attitude of Chinese companies towards the purchase of foreign equipment has not. There are five basic beliefs that drove Chinese advanced equipment purchases back when I was working on them in the 1990s and those same five basic beliefs drive these purchases today. Once these beliefs are understood, Chinese behavior on these equipment transactions becomes easy to understand. Once you understand the basis for the behavior of your Chinese counterpart on these deals, you can design a program that can be successful in the Chinese market.

In entering into a sales agreement with a Chinese factory interested in buying your high value equipment, you should understand that the Chinese factory owner almost certainly holds the following five fundamental beliefs that will drive its behavior in the sale process:

1. Your price is unfairly high. The important thing to know is that the Chinese side believes your price is both too high and fundamentally unfair. The Chinese side views this as the legacy of foreign imperialism, designed to keep the Chinese down, always under the thumb of the foreign oppressor. This attitude is supported by the general ideology of the PRC government. Under this basic belief, the Chinese factory owner feels morally justified in working to avoid paying you the full price for the equipment.

To achieve this, the basic strategy of the Chinese side will be the following:

a. Insist on paying in installments, then not paying the last installment.

b. Insist on a major discount, in the range of 30% to 40%. This then becomes the new base price for the equipment.

c. After paying the discounted price for the first two units, insist on an additional discount for future purchases.

2. Training is not necessary. Any requirement for training the Chinese side in how to use your equipment is just another way for you to unfairly extract more money from the Chinese side. It is also a way to keep the Chinese side down by showing that the Chinese have something to learn from foreigners. The Chinese believe that operation of the equipment is governed by a simple magic pill. Foreign companies that insist on a training program are withholding access to the magic pill.

3. Proper equipment set-up is not necessary. Your requirement that the Chinese side retain you for proper equipment set-up is a waste of time and designed to shift blame for operational failure onto the Chinese side. The Chinese side believes the equipment should “just work.” For this reason, elaborate site set up and pre-operations testing should not be required. Just turn the key and go.

4. After sale support and maintenance is not required. Requirements from the foreign equipment supplier for such after-sale support is designed to do two things: unfairly extract more money from the Chinese side and keep the Chinese side employees ignorant about the true nature of how the equipment operates. That is, you are unfairly hiding the magic pill from them. In addition, the equipment should “just work,” with no need for after sale maintenance or support. Your requiring a service contract or related after-sale support is either your admitting that your equipment is fundamentally defective or your trying to unfairly milk more money from the Chinese side.

5. Your attempts to protect your IP is foreign oppression. Intellectual property protection that prevents the Chinese side from copying your equipment is just another form of foreign oppression. The Chinese side does not believe the design of your equipment is the result of years of hard work and R&D and it wants to be able to copy it so that it can be manufactured in China at a “fair” price.

This then means the Chinese side’s standard strategy will be to purchase as few units as possible and then use its initial purchase(s) to extract the “magic formula.” The strategy is to abandon future purchases and have clones of your equipment manufactured in China.

Obviously not all Chinese companies subscribe to all five of these beliefs and some Chinese companies do not subscribe to any of them. But most do and I know this from what they have told me (in Chinese), from what I have overheard (in Chinese) and from what I have read (in Chinese). I mention all this because foreign companies find this all hard to believe and even when they do believe it, they find it hard to truly internalize and adjust their selling behavior accordingly. The typical Chinese factory owner will negotiate and implement its purchases of advanced foreign equipment based on these five beliefs. Many foreign suppliers, when faced with the resulting behavior, will conclude that the Chinese are operating in bad faith. However, to deal with the Chinese buyers, the first step is to understand that they believe their approach is fair. They are simply working against the unfair advantage of the foreign seller by making a more level playing field.

The important thing from the standpoint of the foreign seller is to recognize the following:

  1. These basic beliefs are natural and will not be changed.
  2. Since these basic beliefs are pretty much universal among Chinese companies, it is easy to predict how the Chinese buyer will behave at every critical point in the sales process.
  3. Since the approach of the Chinese side can rarely if ever be changed, foreign companies that want to sell their high value equipment to China should design their sales programs based on what the Chinese side will do, with contracts that protect the foreign seller from the negative consequences of near certain Chinese company actions.

In my next post, I will outline a basic program for achieving this.

Not entirely sure why, but in the last couple weeks our China lawyers have seen a massive increase in emails and phone calls from North American companies seeking our help in dealing with defective products/quality control problems. In this post, I explain what you (and they) need to have in place to avoid these sorts of problems in the future, and to make it possible to resolve such problems should they occur. Our China attorneys also have been receiving an unusually high number of emails and phone calls from companies being pursued by Sinosure, and I will discuss how to deal with that in a future post.

My theory is that this slew of calls is due to two things. An increase in QC problems at China factories due to rising costs. Whenever costs rise for China factories quality problems rise as well, until such time as the China companies can increase their prices to their foreign buyers. This influx of bad product calls may also simply be due to the time of year; it may just be the end of 2016 hangover. I note that our last bit tick in these calls was in February 2016. What makes this year’s version so much more interesting for us anyway, is how many of these new matters involve Internet of Things products and how woefully unprepared these companies are to deal with these problems.

I am going to try to avoid getting all preachy here, but I truly do believe that all of these companies could have avoided their bad product problems had they had a good contract in place with their China product supplier. Only one of the companies that have contacted us so far this year had any contract at all with their China factory, and that one contract called for all disputes to be resolved in the U.S. Court of the American buyer, and as we have discussed constantly on here, that is 99.99% of the time a non-starter. In Four Common (And Somewhat Deadly) China Law Mistakes To Avoid, I briefly (for me anyway) gave a real life example as to why this is such a bad idea:

A lawyer calls us with an airtight $2 million dollar breach of contract lawsuit against a Chinese company. This lawyer had drafted a contract calling for disputes between her client and the Chinese counter-party to be resolved in Boston Federal Court and she had already sued the Chinese company in Boston and secured a default judgment against it. She was now seeking my law firm’s help in domesticating the judgment in China, and It was clear she expected us to jump at the opportunity to take the case on a contingency fee basis.

That is until we told her that China does not enforce U.S. judgments. Ever.

She then came up with the idea that we start all over by suing the Chinese company again in China. We had to tell her that could not work because the Chinese court would have two strong grounds for throwing out that lawsuit. First, improper jurisdiction because the contract clearly called for the lawsuit to be in Boston. Second, res judicata because the entire case had already been tried (and won) in Boston (the proper jurisdiction). I have no idea how she explained all this to her client.

American lawyers commonly assume that what makes sense for a domestic transaction necessarily also makes sense for an international transaction. Boston would have made sense in the above instance if the counter-party had been in Los Angeles, but the rules and the issues are different when doing business internationally.

If you check out this post, China Contracts that Work, you will see that what is needed for you to have a manufacturing contract that works is for that contract to be in Chinese with a provision calling for disputes to be resolved in a Chinese court under Chinese law. Your manufacturing contract should also contain a liquidated damages provision and a mold protection provision (so that the factory does not keep your molds if there is a dispute, and be properly chopped/sealed by the Chinese side. It is also critical that your contract be with the right Chinese company as Chinese companies are notorious for signing agreements with an essentially empty shell company, usually based in Hong Kong. If your contract satisfies all of these things, the odds of your having a manufacturing problem go way way down. And if you have such a contract and you do have a problem, your odds of being able to resolve it with your Chinese factory without having to contact a China law firm for legal assistance go way way up. And in those rare instances where you do need to engage a China attorney to assist, that attorney will be well positioned to resolve your problem relatively quickly.

One more thing. Whenever someone contacts our law firm with a problem with their factory, one of the first things we always ask them is whether they have secured China trademarks for their trade name and their brand and their logo. We then explain how common it is for Chinese factories (they actually have someone else do the filing for them) to go off and register YOUR brand name and YOUR logo as a trademark so that they can use this as leverage against you or so that they can keep making your product with your brand name and your logo and sell that product in any country in the world where you have not protected them with a trademark. Sadly, about half the time we are too late and the trademarks have already been registered to someone else, making it difficult or even impossible for the foreign buyer to continue having its products made in China. For more on this critical IP issue, check out When to Register your China Trademark. Ask Tesla and China: Do Just One Thing, Trademarks. So if you have not already registered your brand names and logos in China, you should do this IMMEDIATELY and you certainly should do so before you complain to anyone there.

China manufacturing agreementsWhen we first began drafting manufacturing agreements for clients outsourcing their manufacturing to China, one of our China lawyers would send the client a six page questionaire to tease out the client’s China manufacturing plans. But no matter how hard we tried, there were almost always important questions our client either did not understand or unable to answer. We quickly realized that dumping six pages of questions on our clients was too much, especially since a particular answer to one question might mean a few other questions had become irrelevant.

We met with legal tech people to see about using technology to simplifying the process but we soon determined that would hardly help at all. These are not the sort of contracts that can be automated. Rather these contracts require the China attorney working on the manufacturing agreement to be in constant “live contact” with the client to help the client determine what makes sense for its industry, its company, and its product. So we instead switched to a system where we ask questions in “waves.” When we get answers to the first wave, we review those answers and ask a second wave and we keep going until we have all the information we need to start drafting the contract. We then draft the contract in English for our client to review and then we draft it in Chinese as the official version, with an English language version as a translation for our client. See Get Your China Contracts Written In Chinese, Not Translated and How To Draft A Contract For China. This has also become our standard operating procedure for our China NNN Agreements and our China Product Development Agreements as well.

I thought of all this today while reviewing a client’s email response to the first wave of questions for its China manufacturing agreement. The answers made so much sense that drafting wave two of questions will be a breeze. I am going to share this first wave of questions because they should make for a good starting point for Western companies seeking to determine how to have their products manufactured in China. Note that even our first wave of questions is tailored to the specific client so a few of the below questions are not relevant to every industry, company or product.

This is ____________ from Harris Bricken. I will be drafting your manufacturing agreement for China. To kick off this project, I have some preliminary questions. I will have other more specific questions based on your answers.

1. I note from your website that you have an extensive product line. Which specific products from that line do you want this manufacturing agreement to cover?

2. Do you have a specific set of factories in China with which you are already working? Or do you want this manufacturing agreement to be used for new factories? Or both?

3. In what PRC region(s) are your factories located?

4. When you work with factories, do you set a specific product amount on an annual or other fixed basis? Or do you work on a per purchase order basis, with no fixed annual order amounts?

5. What is your pricing arrangement with the factories? Is there a set price fixed for a specific period? If there is a set price, how is that price level enforced?

6. What are your payment terms? Do you pay an initial deposit? When is the final payment made?

7. How do you provide for submission and maintenance of samples? I know that in your industry, products are normally made in reference to a physical sample, rather than to a drawing or CAD diagram or similar. What system do you use?

8. What is your system for inspection and quality control? Do you inspect during production? Prior to shipment? After you receive the products in the United States and in Europe? After delivery to your customer? What is the specific system for dealing with defective/non-conforming product discovered at any of these four points in the system?

9. Do you have a system for dealing with inspection and related specific safety standards in place in the U.S. and in Europe? For example, flammable fabrics, non-lead paints, small pieces on toys and related. If so, what is the division of responsibility between your company and the Chinese factory?

10. Do you have a system for dealing with the quantity of orders made over time? Since many of your products are seasonal in demand, do you have some form of scheduling system to ensure that the factory will have capacity to deliver your orders during peak seasons?

11. What is your procedure for packaging and shipping? What are the shipping terms? How is pricing linked to shipping terms? To where is the product shipped? To your warehouses in the U.S. and in Europe, or directly to your customers?

12. I understand that you distribute some of your products for sale in China. Have you considered how the China side of your operations might impact this agreement, if at all? If we can ignore the China entity/sales issue at this time, that is fine, but we should discuss this.

13. I understand that you have been having products manufactured in China for more than a decade. What specific problems have you encountered that you want your new manufacturing agreements to resolve?

If you would like to discuss any of these matters over the phone or by Skype, and I would be pleased to speak with you.

For more on what goes into China manufacturing agreements I urge you to check out Having Your Product Made In China: The Basics on Protecting It and You and the links within that post.

China manufacturing contractMy first post in this three part series focused on a post entitled The 7 Major Risks You Run With Your China Manufacturers, by China manufacturing expert Renaud Anjouran. In that post, Renaud outlined the business risks foreign companies face when having Chinese factories manufacture their products. I noted how Renaud’s list nicely accords with what our China lawyers tell our clients who retain my law frim to draft their Chinese manufacturing contracts. See China Manufacturing Agreements: Binding Contract or Contract Terms. I noted how our manufacturing clients usually want to focus on a) intellectual property protection/prevention of counterfeiting, ownership of molds and tooling and after sales warranty service. In other words, the sorts of things legal agreements are really good at resolving. But oftentimes, core business issues like price, quantity, delivery date, quality and resolution of quality issues, subcontracting and shipping are of at least equal importance.

The source of the problems for Western companies that manufacture in China is the pervasive use of the purchase order approach to purchasing contract manufactured product from China. In China Manufacturing Agreements: Binding Contract or Contract Terms, I wrote how there are two basic ways to structure a China contract manufacturing agreement.

Option One is to enter into a legally binding contract (in Chinese!) that addresses all of the basic manufacturing issues. The agreement on price binds both the Chinese factory and the foreign buyer, and even if costs change, the parties remain obligated to pay and sell the product at the agreed-upon price, no matter which party benefits or loses from the changes. This sort of contract is common in much of the world, but less so in China. China, however, the entire risk tends to be loaded on one side or the other. The same applies to the other key business terms in China manufacturing agreements, such as the terms for payment, quantity, delivery date and quality. Foreign buyers who do not want to be bound or who cannot be bound due to lack of resources will follow Option Two. Under Option Two, the contract terms and conditions are binding on the parties only after a purchase order is presented by the foreign party and then accepted by the Chinese party. It is this lack of a binding agreement that is the primary cause of the seven manufacturing risks Renaud discusses in his post.

The obvious path to contract certainty  is to enter into an Option 1 manufacturing contract that formally commits both parties to the basic business terms for a specific period of time. However, the lure of China for many foreign buyers is that Chinese factories are willing to do small runs on a purchase order basis. The purchase order system is oftentimes THE reason why the foreign company is having its product developed and made in China. For this reason, our primary task as lawyers is to develop contract manufacturing agreements that deal up front with the risks that come from using the purchase order approach. Our job as China attorneys then is to make sure that our foreign buyer clients understand the risks and then to work on mitigating those risks in a practical way.

I explain below and in Part 3 of this series how our China manufacturing lawyers do that with each of the seven risks Renaud identified.

Risk 1: Lack of “Motivation.” The major risk we see stems from the foreign buyer loading the development costs onto the Chinese side with no incentive for the Chinese side to follow through on development. Renaud calls this risk “loss of motivation” and we see this all the time. The foreign side relies on the Chinese factory to do the product development, normally loading the cost on the Chinese factory. After two years, the development is not completed and the market has moved on, leaving the foreign side high and dry with no marketable product. The Chinese side assures the foreign buyer that they are “working on it,” but in fact the product development project is a low priority as compared to their ongoing manufacturing that pays their bills and so they are “working on it” only when times are slack. It is also common for Chinese factories to agree to take on a development project when they do not actually have the capability to do the work. In this situation, the delay results from the Chinese side being pushed up against the limits of what it can actually do.

The best way to address this lack of motivation risk basic method is to enter into a legally binding product development agreement with the Chinese factory that includes the following:

  • Milestones: hard dates for development of prototypes or samples.
  • Allocation of costs. If all costs are loaded on the Chinese side, the chance of success is dramatically reduced.
  • A real incentive for the Chinese side to succeed. This incentive can be payments for the Chinese factory hitting its milestones or it can be a commitment to purchase reasonable (but predetermined) quantities of the developed product at a fair price.

Few foreign buyers follow this approach, with the predictable results described by Renaud.

Risk Two: Quality Failure at the Production Stage. The Chinese side agrees to manufacture the product at the “China Price.” Initial samples are acceptable in terms of quality, but once production starts, the quality is consistently bad. When pressed, the Chinese side says: “We gave you the China Price and you knew that at that price we would never be able to produce a quality product. It is your fault: you have to choose. If you want the China Price, you don’t get assurance of quality, quantity or delivery date. If you want all those items to be acceptable to you, we need a binding contract that covers all four issues in a manner that works for us too. But if you insist on the China Price and you do not provide us with a binding commitment for orders, you will have to accept what we provide.”

Price is not the only issue; there are four key factors involved in having your products made in China: price, quantity, delivery date and quality and if you fail to hold your Chinese factory legally accountable for all four of these things, you are likely to have problems. If your Chinese supplier takes all four factors seriously, its pricing must increase. Foreign buyers who are not willing to accept such an increase will continually face the Chinese factory failing to comply with the other factors. Quality will suffer, delivery will be short or late, or the factory will suddenly quit accepting orders right at the height of the delivery season.

Risk Three: Low Priority in Production Schedule. The Chinese side accepts your purchase order for a small run of product at a low “China” price. Then another buyer shows up and offers a slightly higher price for a larger quantity of product. The Chinese side then pushes your order down the line for priority and your delivery is delayed. In some cases, the delay extends to the point where delivery never takes place. The Chinese side is not concerned about failing to deliver on the purchase order, since the litigation risks are extremely low because you do not have a Chinese language contract that works. See China Contracts: Make Them Enforceable Or Don’t Bother.

This situation regularly occurs when the relationship is based on “one off” purchase orders. See How To Get Bad Product From China With No Legal Recourse. The way to deal with this issue is to have a contract manufacturing agreement that clearly incorporates your purchase orders into the legally binding contract and that provides specific monetary penalties if your factory accepts a purchase order and then either delays or fails to deliver. When pressed to enter into this sort of agreement, Chinese factories will treat accepted purchase orders seriously and their delay/default rate goes way down. In our experience, factories that intend to take a relaxed view towards their legal obligations under an accepted purchase order will simply refuse to execute a formal contract manufacturing agreement, which is exactly what you want. See How To Write A China Contract. Liquidated Damages.

Risk Four: Sudden and Unpredictable Price Increases. Under the standard scenario, the Chinese side agrees to manufacture your product at a goal price, without ever having undertaken any serious examination of what it will actually take to manufacturer your product. The Chinese side then does the product development and the production implementation. The samples are acceptable and it is time to begin production. The foreign buyer then submits the first purchase order at the goal price. The Chinese side refuses to accept the PO and announces a substantial price increase. If the price increase is not accepted, the factory states that it will not accept any future purchase order.

There are two reasons China factories do this. The first and most common is that the factory never understood the price issue and never planned to meet the proposed price. The factory merely accepted the goal price to prevent you from going to another factory. The Chinese factory assumes you will be compelled to accept a purchase at the “real” price (whatever that price is) because you will be unwilling or unable to spend another 6-12 months (or whatever it will take) to start over with another factory.

The second common reason Chinese factories will take on a product development project with no intention of giving you the product you want at a price and delivery schedule that can make sense is that the factory is treating you as its outsourced R&D center. The idea comes from the foreign side, the implementation comes from the Chinese side. But the ultimate goal is for the Chinese side to make and sell the product on its own. The Chinese factory never planned to make the product for the foreigner. So they offer a very high price. If the foreigner accepts, they make the product for the foreigner at a price higher than they ever imagined. If the foreigner refuses the price, they move on to make and sell the product on their own. This sort of thing is incredibly common and hardly a week goes by without someone calling one of our China lawyers for our help to “require the Chinese factory to get its price in line with the market.” But unless you have a written contract that works for China and made pricing clear, there is nothing we can do to help at that point.

If the foreign buyer is purchasing an off the shelf product that is part of the Chinese factory’s standard inventory, the risk of any price issue is low. If you are engaging the Chinese factory to make minor customization of its standard product (maybe just adding your logo or changing the color), the risk is also low. But if the Chinese factory will be modifying/customizing its existing product, you should have a legally binding contract that the Chinese factory feels compelled to honor. The way to deal with this is under a product development agreement that includes the following three key components:

  • A strict timeline for developing the working prototype.
  • A provision that makes clear you own the prototype and all data, drawings and tooling required to manufacture based on the prototype.
  • A provision that states that if the factory meets the target price, you will purchase exclusively from the factory, but if the factory cannot meet the target price, you are free to take the prototype and have it manufactured at any other factory.

Without an agreement like this, you should expect a price increase as an almost a certain result of the product development process.

In part 3 of this series (coming later this week), I will examine how best to deal with the last three business risks inherent in having your product made in China, including one of my favorites, subcontracting.


China manufacturing lawyersIn a post entitled The 7 Major Risks You Run With Your China Manufacturers, China manufacturing expert Renaud Anjouran outlines the business risks foreign companies face when outsourcing their product manufacturing to Chinese factories. Renaud’s list nicely accords with what our China lawyers tell our clients for whom we draft Chinese contract manufacturing agreements. See China Manufacturing Agreements: Binding Contract or Contract Terms. When we first talk, our manufacturing clients usually want to focus on the following: a) ownership of intellectual property, b) prevention of counterfeiting, c) ownership of molds and tooling and d) after sales warranty service. This is the kind of thing legal agreements are really good at resolving and it is easy to allow the discussion to center on these issues.

But in my 25+ years of working in China, it is rarely these issues that result in bankruptcy of the foreign purchaser. The matters that result in bankruptcy are usually on the list provided by Renaud. That is, the most serious issues are the core business issues tied to outsourced manufacturing: price, quantity, delivery date, quality and resolution of quality issues, subcontracting and shipping.

Renaud describes the basic issues, but, we should ask at the outset: what is the source of these issues and what can be done to address them. The source of the problems is the pervasive use of the purchase order approach to purchasing contract manufactured product from China. In China Manufacturing Agreements: Binding Contract or Contract Terms, I wrote how there are two basic ways to structure a China contract manufacturing agreement.

Option One is to enter into a binding contract with the China factory that directly confronts all of the basic manufacturing issues in a manner that is legally binding on both the parties. Under this option, the agreement on price binds both the Chinese factory and the foreign buyer. If material costs change, if labor costs change, if production costs change, the parties remain obligated to pay and sell the product at the agreed-upon price, no matter which party benefits or loses from the changes. Both parties are taking the price risk. If the agreement is long term and if the various input costs are likely to change over time, then the parties either take the risk or develop a detailed system for adjusting in response to the change. In most of the world, this is what is done. In China, however, the entire risk tends to be loaded on one side or the other. The same applies to the other key business terms in China manufacturing agreements, such as the terms for payment, quantity, delivery date and quality.

The issue for many foreign buyers is that under Option One, both parties are bound. Foreign buyers who do not want to be bound or who cannot be bound due to lack of resources will follow Option Two. Under Option Two, any form of contract manufacturing agreement is little more than terms and conditions. Such terms and conditions are binding on the parties only after a purchase order is presented by the foreign party and then accepted by the Chinese party. If the Chinese manufacturer does not accept your purchase order, there is no binding agreement you and your Chinese manufacturer. It is this lack of a binding agreement that is the primary cause of the seven manufacturing risks Renaud discusses in his post.

Consider for a second why that is the case from the perspective of the Chinese factory. Under the purchase order approach, the factory has no assurance that its foreign buyer will place even a single order. During a fiscal year, the Chinese factory has no assurance on price, quantity or delivery date. The Chinese factory is expected to develop the product, taking on the risk and expense of commercialization. The Chinese factory is then expected to turn over to its foreign buyer the plans, molds and tooling so the foreign buyer can move production to a lower cost factory down the road. In this type of situation, the factory really has nothing solid in the relationship with the foreign buyer. So the factory acts in the manner described by Renaud. This is perfectly natural and it is to be expected. That is, any foreign buyer that expects a Chinese factory to act differently under the purchase order approach option is living in a dream world.

So what is the solution? The obvious solution is to follow Option 1 by entering into a binding agreement with the Chinese factory that formally commits both parties to the basic business terms for a specific period of time. However, the lure of China for many foreign buyers is that Chinese factories are willing to do small runs on a purchase order basis. The purchase order system is oftentimes the reason why the foreign company is having its product developed and manufactured in China. To tell these buyers to follow Option 1 is unrealistic.

For this reason, our primary task as lawyers is to develop contract manufacturing agreements that recognize that the purchase order approach will be used and deal up front with the risks that come from that. The key here is that the foreign buyer understand the risks and work actively with the Chinese factory to deal with mitigating those risks in a way that is practical and fair.

We can now consider the situation in China in relation to the risks Renaud identifies. In my follow-up post (on Sunday) I will discuss the first four of these risks and how best to mitigate against them. In part 3 of this series, I will conclude by examining how to deal with the last three of these risks.

China Manufacturing AgreementsOne of the most common emails we get are those from someone having problems with their China manufacturer. Those problems are all over the map, but one of the more common ones is the Chinese manufacturer starting to make the foreign company’s products and starting to compete with the foreign company in the foreign company’s own market. There is a simple remedy for this and that is to have your manufacturing agreement forbid your China manufacturer from making or selling your product and from using your trade name or your logos. The other thing to do is to register your brand name as a trademark in China and wherever you sell your products. But nearly always when we get an email from someone with this sort of problem with their China manufacturer, they have done few or none of these things.

The below is a very typical email exchange, modified in various ways to hide any identifiers. I am running this because it is a good lesson of how planning is essential when you are having your products made in China. For the basics on protecting your company when manufacturing in China, check out Having Your Product Made In China: The Basics on Protecting It and You.

EMAIL FROM CHINA CONSULTANT TO ONE OF MY FIRM’S CHINA LAWYERS: I hope you are doing well. I’ve got an interesting story for you which could potentially mean some contract work for your China team. This is our largest client who would definitely see the value in paying for an enforceable contract in China. They currently have a contract, but it was badly written. We knew this going in, however it’s sometimes a little tricky telling your client that their contract is not good, or even that their colleagues have no idea what they are doing. I’m sure you can relate.

Our client has a Chinese factory producing product for them. There is a contract in place which details minimum order quantities annually and clauses related to exclusivity in the EU. For the last year or so, our client has failed to meet the minimum order quantities, hence exclusivity would not be certain. The main reason for not meeting the order quantities is problems the factory has had with packing the product in a way that protects it during shipment and also problems with the product itself. These issues have now been sorted out my client is ready to move ahead with up to 60 containers a month. There are also moulds involved that are worth well over a half million RMB.

My client received an email from the factory last week telling them they will be attending the ___________ trade fair, and asked for my client to send a sales person to represent them. So they want to exhibit in Europe and show my client’s product! Though this email was quite amusing as they also asked for information regarding how the product was installed and to send a technical person to give them more details about the whole system, my client is very concerned. I say amusing because the supplier has no idea what testing or standards are required in Europe as they manufacture almost exclusively domestic product. It would be a bit like a factory in China exhibiting in the US and telling Home Depot (their client) that they were going to help them sell their own product.

I am curious on your thoughts and what areas you may be able to help us. I was thinking of the below, but would be open to more.

1. NNN contract. It may be too late for this as I am not sure the supplier will not be keen to sign a new contract at this point. From their point of view, they already have a great contract.

2. Trademark in China. Just reading a bit on your site that my client may want to register their trademarks in China. Are you able to help with this and also do you know the time it would take to do this?

3. Have you heard of a trade show barring a supplier from attending because they are selling essentially stolen products?

Please let me know what you think when you have some time.



RESPONSE EMAIL FROM ONE OF MY FIRM’S CHINA LAWYERS TO THE CHINA CONSULTANT would need to know more to be able to provide all options but I can say that separate and apart from what has been transpiring between your client and its factory, your client may have already suffered permanent damage by not having already registered its trademark in China. That is the one thing above all else that anyone manufacturing in China MUST do. We can get your client first in line for the various trademarks it will need in a week or two (assuming those trademarks are even still available to your client, which they very well may not be) but it will take 12-15 months for the trademarks to actually issue.

As for the issue regarding the factory, a trademark will not help your client in that the factory could sell the same product under a different name but your client securing a design patent in China and elsewhere might help for this. It will depend.

I cannot recommend doing anything with the factory without getting the whole story because I am scared to death of what could happen here. One part of me says your client should tell the factory to sign a new (good) contract now “or we walk,” but the other part of me says that could be a huge mistake because the factory will almost certainly say, “great, and we keep the moulds because they belong to us and now we will be going into the EU in full force. Oh, and it seems that my cousin has registered all of your brand names and logos here in China, so you will no longer be able to put those on any of your products made in China.” I say this presuming that when you say your client does not have a good contract with its China factory that it does not have a written and sealed agreement in Chinese making clear that it owns the moulds and that it owns its various trade names and logos and the China factory cannot use those without your client’s written permission to do so.

So next step here is for your client to retain us so we can gather up all of the facts and figure out step by step what it can do to protect itself now, if anything.



China mold contractIn clearing out emails the other day I came across an email conversation from many months ago between a China consultant whose client was having trouble getting its molds from its China factory and one of my firm’s China lawyers. The consultant’s client, an American company, had just assumed that the molds it was seeking belonged to them because they had paid for them (around $120,000).. Below is the conversation between this China consultant and one of my firm’s China attorneys.

China Consultant. It looks like I might need your help with something else as well. Any chance to get molds from a factory if the attached is all my client has? The factory basically said that it gave us a great deal and we have to pay $80,000 more on top of the $120,000 my client already paid if we want to remove the molds from their factory. I am the middle man and my customer wants to move these molds to their factory in the US because they are moving production back home.

China Lawyer: The China factory is going to say that the agreement [emailed to us] was for services and it owns the molds. We have dealt with these sort of issues many times and our goal when retained is to get the molds for an amount less than originally sought and for a savings that more than pays our legal fees. If the Chinese factory really wants the molds, our chances of getting them back for a good price are not good at all. But if the Chinese factory just wants money and if your client is willing to pay for the molds, we ought to be able to get them a considerably better deal.

If your client had a well-crafted China mold ownership agreement or mold ownership provision in any of their agreements with this factory, we’d be able to get them their molds for nothing or for a couple thousand dollars, and within a few weeks. Most likely, their manufacturer would never even have tried to hold on to them. But we cannot tell them that, at least not right now.

China Consultant: At this point, are you amazed by how many ways china factories screw over American companies?

China Attorney: At this point, nothing a China factory can do would amaze me. But yet I never cease to be amazed by how American companies do things in China without first running them by someone who knows what he or she is doing. Maybe it is just because I am a lawyer and so I know how little it would have cost this company to have done things right in the first place (far less than we will charge them now to try to get their molds back), but it is really the American company that troubles me here, not the Chinese one. Virtually any time you do not have a mold agreement with a Chinese factory and you tell them that you will cease manufacturing with them they hold onto the molds, usually just out of spite. This is why we put mold provisions (and penalties) in nearly every manufacturing agreement we write.

China Consultant: My client has decided it will be easier and less nerve-wracking and maybe even cheaper to just remake the molds, especially since they don’t need all of them.

China Attorney: I completely understand. Totally their call. Good luck to you both.


China contract lawyersDespite all that you may have read about China’s economy being on the downswing and despite all that you may have read about China factories closing, our China lawyers are starting to see distinctly tougher negotiating by China factories. We attribute this to the following:

  1. To greatly simplify, ten years ago China factories made socks and rubber duckies and with thousands of factories capable of making these things competition was incredibly intense. On top of this, price was oftentimes the foreign buyer’s only real concern. Today, China factories are making incredibly complicated products and oftentimes few or sometimes only one China factory has the capability to make the exact product the foreign buyer wants. Sometimes a China factory even holds a patent for some aspect of the product and so that factory is the only factory that can produce the product with that one aspect. Needless to say, being unique or nearly unique increases pricing power.
  2. To again greatly simplify, ten years ago, there were a number of China factories that knew little to nothing about pricing. It would not be an exaggeration to say that our China lawyers oftentimes dealt with China factories that did not even know their costs, leading us to often joke that they would make up for their selling widgets at a dollar under their costs by selling massive quantities of widgets. Most of those factories either wised up or no longer exist.
  3. Read all you like about factories closing in China, but recognize that there are plenty of profitable China factories these days with very good long term relationships with good stable foreign buyers. Those China factories are in no rush to take on your production on bad terms.

So what we are seeing now is a power shift, with Chinese factories more and more often gaining the upper hand. In subtle ways, this is making our job as China lawyers more difficult, while increasing legal fees for our clients. In the old days, our typical scenario would be that we would draft a manufacturing agreement (a/k/a OEM or ODM contract), send it to the Chinese company and get it back signed within 24 hours. Nowadays, it is far more common for us to receive pushback from the Chinese company on terms, including on terms to which the Chinese company previously agreed with our client. Needless to say, one of the more common push-backs is on price, with the Chinese factory oftentimes saying something like, we quoted $5 per widget with the understanding that we would have 90 days to produce after receiving the PO and now you are asking for 45 days (even though the email trail reveals that our client had made clear it was 45 days all along).

We are also seeing increased toughness even in the pre-quoting stage from China companies. About a month ago, I received an email from a foreign buyer telling me that a potential supplier was saying that it would sign an NNN Agreement with the foreign buyer agreeing not to use any secret information provided by the foreign buyer to compete with the foreign buyer, but if the foreign buyer ended up using another supplier to make its widgets, it would not be bound by the NNN Agreement. In other words, it would be free to use the foreign buyer’s top secret information to compete with it. The foreign buyer asked if something like this would work, to which I replied as follows:

No, this will not work. Not at all. This could be terrible for you. Imagine this scenario. Imagine you get quotes from five other good manufacturers ranging from $5 per widget to $7 per widget, but this one Chinese company is quoting you at $12 per widget. Do you pay the obviously inflated $12 per widget price, because if you do not, that Chinese company can (and likely will, otherwise why is it’s price quote so out of line with everyone else’s) will start making your widgets and competing directly with you. So you can see why this is not acceptable. We have actually never heard of a Chinese company making this sort of proposal so you should not face this situation with any other potential suppliers.

But then yesterday, one of our China lawyers got a similar email from a foreign buyer asking us essentially the same question. I discussed all of this with co-blogger Steve Dickinson and his response was “that’s what’s so cool about Chinese companies. They tell you what they are going to do. These two Chinese companies are saying if you don’t choose us we will steal your product. The choice is up to you. It’s up to our clients to listen”

I guess that is true. To which I can only ask whether you our readers agree that doing business in China and with China is only getting tougher.

For more on China manufacturing pricing, check out China Manufacturing Agreements: Binding Contract or Contract Terms.