Though we often talk generally about what it takes to form a company in China, a reader recently pointed out to me that we have never set out the basic steps one must take to do so. The following sets out the basic steps a foreigner usually must take to form a Wholly Foreign Owned Entity (WFOE) in China. For more information on what is required to form a company in China, check out How To Start A Business In China — WFOE and How To Start A Business In China — The Minimum Capital Requirements For A WFOE.
Forming a WFOE in China typically requires the following:
1. Make Sure Your Business is Legal For Foreigners. Determine if the proposed WFOE will conduct a business approved for foreign investment by the Chinese government. For example, until recently, China prohibited private entities from engaging in export trade. Be sure your business will be legal.
2. Provide The Proper Documentation. The investor in the WFOE must provide the documentation from its home country proving it is a duly formed and validly existing corporation or Limited Liability company, along with evidence showing who from the investor is authorized to execute documents on behalf of the investor. The investor also often must provide documentation demonstrating its financial adequacy in its home country.
3. Investor Documents Needed. The Chinese government normally requires the following documents from the investing business entity:
4. Consider Forming a Special Purpose Company to Own the WFOE. Many investors create special purpose companies to serve as the investor in China. China’s company regulators have become accustomed to this process. However, the Chinese regulators will often still seek to trace the ownership of the foreign investor back to a viable, operating business enterprise. It is common to form a Hong Kong company for this purpose and there are often tax benefits in doing so.
5. Secure Chinese Government Approval. In China, unlike in most countries with which Western companies tend to be familiar, approval of the project by the relevant government authority is an integral part of the company registration process. If the project is not approved, the company will not be registered.
6. Compile and Provide These Documents for Chinese Government Approval. The following documents must usually be prepared and then submitted to the Chinese government:
7. Compile and Provide These Additional Documents for Chinese Government Approval. You will also usually be required to provide the following documents:
8. The Approval Process. It usually takes two to five months for governmental approval, depending on the location of the project and its size and scope. Large cities like Shanghai tend to be slower than smaller cities. The investor must pay various incorporation fees, which fees vary depending on the location, the amount of registered capital and any special licenses required for the specific project. Typically, these fees equal a little over 1% of the initial capital. On large and/or complex projects, the approval process often involves extensive negotiations with various regulatory authorities whose approval is required. For example, a large factory may have serious land use or environmental issues. Thus, the time frame for approval of incorporation is never certain. It depends on the type of project and the location. Foreign investors must be prepared for this uncertainty from the outset.
if you comply fully with the above, your chance of getting your WFOE approved is nearly 100%.