China import duties

几年前,在《从中国进口商品:风险正在上升》这篇文章中,我写了有关企业如何识别反倾销(AD)或反补贴(CVD)申请。我介绍了您作为进口商、出口商或外国生产商在看到反倾销(AD)或反补贴(CVD)的风暴迫在眉睫时,应当做的事情。

您应该做的第一件事是确定反倾销(AD)或反补贴(CVD)申请是否将直接影响您的主要业务。您应该做的第二件事是弄清楚如果反倾销(AD)或反补贴(CVD)申请是按照你想要的方式进行,您应当如何最好的保护自己的利益。如果您确实受到反倾销(AD)或反补贴(CVD)税的打击,您应该做的第三件事是弄清楚损害的控制措施。

  1. 新的反倾销(AD)或反补贴(CVD)申请——我的产品是否受到影响?

新的反倾销(AD)或反补贴(CVD)申请包括一个拟定的范围定义,用于标识所涵盖的产品。反倾销(AD)或反补贴(CVD)范围定义可能很复杂且不清楚。它们可能比通常用于识别此类进口的海关关税分类更宽泛或更狭窄。即使您认为您的产品不属于申请范围,美国海关对此可能不同意。美国海关通常要求您首先支付AD/CVD押金,先假设您的产品在AD/CVD申请范围内,然后,只有当您得到商务部(DOC)裁定您的产品实际上不在范围之内,海关才会退还您的押金。例如,对于来自中国的铝挤压型材,商务部收到了大约一百个有关范围裁决的请求,以澄清某些产品是否被纳入或排除在该命令的范围。

了解范围定义后,您可以评估 AD/CVD措施可能对您的业务产生的影响程度。您和您的客户可以找到替代方案,把受AD/CVD影响的产品替换为不受制约的产品或从不受制约的国家/地区采购的产品。如果您可以选择退出AD/CVD措施所涵盖的产品,则可能不需要参与AD/CVD调查。

 

  1. 反倾销(AD)或反补贴(CVD)调查——如何辩护?

如果您的产品完全在 AD/CVD 申请范围内,并且美国市场是值得争取的,您应该确定为 AD/CVD 调查做好准备的最佳方法。如果您在提交申请之前有足够的时间,理论上您可以尝试调整您的销售策略,以弥补导致倾销或补贴销售的任何原因,通常是对某些产品或客户进行价格提高,或者通过降低或重新分配成本来改变您的生产运营。但是,大多数公司没有积极主动地采取计划避免 AD/CVD 措施,而是仅在提交申请后做出反应。我们发现,相较从欧洲进口的客户而言,那些从中国进口的客户尤其如此。

一旦AD/CVD调查启动,外国生产商、出口商和美国进口商应努力在以下两个机构作出AD/CVD决定之前维护其利益:国际贸易委员会(ITC)确定国内产业是否由于倾销或补贴的进口商品而受到损害或威胁,商务部(DOC)计算倾销或补贴的幅度。

在国际贸易委员会(ITC)调查中,最好的辩护是,外国生产商、美国进口商和美国购买者可以组织并解释为什么本国工业业绩下降不应归咎于倾销或补贴的产品。由于国际贸易委员会会审查相关产品在美国市场的广泛数据,因此,想要赢得胜利,就必须对相关市场状况作出全面的解释。

在商务部调查中,外国生产商和出口商是商务部调查问卷的主要答复者。这些公司必须提供大量的公司结构、销售和成本数据,通常是通过多轮问卷进行的。商务部使用提交的数据计算 AD/CVD幅度。不相关联的美国进口商通常不需要在商务部调查和审查中提交数据,但他们通常会密切监视商务部的程序,因为他们最终将负责支付 AD/CVD关税。请参阅《美国进口商的责任》

AD/CVD 辩护的关键是充分参与商务部和国际贸易委员会的调查。如果你不参加,你就没有机会获胜。如果一方当事人没有及时或作出完整的答复,商务部和国际贸易委员会可以使用不可避免的不利事实,导致较高的AD/CVD的幅度 。美国进口商至少应该积极关注商务部的程序,因为他们的最终AD/CVD责任通常取决于中国生产商和出口商对商务部问卷的反应程度。对于中国生产商或出口商来说,辩护能力薄弱或根本没有防御的情况并不少见,这让美国进口商实质上是在”背黑锅”。您可以而且应该做很多事情来防止这种情况发生在自己身上。

 

  1. 如何用AD/CVD规划生活。

绝大多数的AD/CVD申请导致下令征收AD/CVD关税。 但是,根据 AD/CVD 指令的范围定义,您可以通过确定可替代的范围外产品或将产品采购转换到其他国家/地区来维护业务运营。但在转换采购时,美国进口商应小心避免采取可能被视为主要旨在逃避反倾销/反补贴关税的计划,因为商务部可以通过规避调查来延长指令。海关也可以对逃税指控进行自己的调查。

此外,由于美国使用追溯性AD/CVD系统,外国供应商和美国进口商每年有机会尝试降低倾销幅度。由于 AD/CVD 是”补救”性质的,外国生产商和美国进口商有充分的机会调整其生产和销售业务,以便他们能够可以按照美国贸易法的规定并经过适当的计划和严格执行,”公平”地销售到美国市场,公司有时甚至可以做些微调整,以减少或消除其 AD/CVD 关税责任。

最重要的一点:当您面临AD/CVD时,您可以做一些事情来阻止它攻击您的生意,也可以做一些事来恢复受到影响的生意。

 

编者按:本文章重点介绍了从中国出口到美国的产品,但其建议适用于从任何其他国家出口到美国的产品,也同样适用于从任何其他国家出口到受AD/CVD制裁的进口国家的产品。

Print:
EmailTweetLikeLinkedIn
Photo of Adams Lee Adams Lee

Adams Lee has more than twenty years’ experience providing strategic advice and legal guidance on complex international trade and administrative regulatory matters to US and foreign companies, trade associations, and foreign governments. He advises companies in a broad range of industries on international…

Adams Lee has more than twenty years’ experience providing strategic advice and legal guidance on complex international trade and administrative regulatory matters to US and foreign companies, trade associations, and foreign governments. He advises companies in a broad range of industries on international trade remedy and trade policy issues.

Adams brings a wealth of knowledge to Harris Bricken’s international trade practice. He is adept at quickly evaluating strategic options and developing the best comprehensive legal approach in light of relevant policy and case law. Beyond achieving significant DOC and ITC results that improve his clients’ competitive position, Adams helps them understand complex trade issues so they can make well-informed business decisions.

Adams spends his free time exploring all that Seattle and the Northwest have to offer.

Photo of Fred Rocafort Fred Rocafort

Fred is a former diplomat who joined Harris Bricken after more than a decade of international legal experience, primarily in China, Vietnam, and Thailand. His wide range of experience includes starting and operating his own business in Asia, working as an in-house counsel…

Fred is a former diplomat who joined Harris Bricken after more than a decade of international legal experience, primarily in China, Vietnam, and Thailand. His wide range of experience includes starting and operating his own business in Asia, working as an in-house counsel for a Hong Kong-based multinational, as well as many years as a State Department official, providing a client-centric perspective to his legal work. Fred co-hosts Harris Bricken’s weekly Global Law and Business podcast, which covers legal and economic developments in locales around the world to decipher global trends in law and business with the help from international guests.

Fred began his career overseas as a U.S. vice-consul in Guangzhou, China, adjudicating thousands of visa applications and advocating for fairer treatment of American companies and citizens in China and for stronger anti-counterfeiting enforcement. After entering the private sector, Fred worked at a Shanghai law firm as a foreign legal advisor and later joined one of the oldest American law firms in China. He also led the legal team at a Hong Kong-based brand protection consultancy, spending most of his time out in the field, protecting clients against counterfeiters and fraudsters from Binh Duong to Buenos Aires.

Fred is an ardent supporter of FC Barcelona—and would be even in the absence of Catalan forebears who immigrated to Puerto Rico in the mid-1800s. An avid explorer of Hong Kong’s countryside, he now spends much of his free time discovering the Pacific Northwest’s natural charms.