China Template Contract

One of the most important things our China attorneys do with every contract we write is to determine who exactly it is on the other side. Oftentimes, this is no small feat.

If things go smoothly, our client asks us to write a contract with XYZ Mainland Chinese Company and we research XYZ Mainland Chinese Company and determine there is such a company and once we’ve done that, there is rarely an issue. This sort of smoothness happens around 85% of the time.

The other 15% of the time we find really funky things. Oftentimes we find there is no XYZ Mainland Chinese Company and in that situation we tell our client to go back to the alleged XYZ Mainland Chinese Company and ask them why there is not. Their usual answer is that their company is actually XYZ Hong Kong Company or XYZ Taiwan Company. This difference can make the entire transaction illegal for the simple reason that doing business in China without a Chinese company can itself be illegal. See Doing Business in China Without a WFOE: Will the Defendant Please Rise. This difference can also mean that you have zero contractual protection against whatever the HK or Taiwan or whatever company might do. See e.g., Hong Kong: Toto, We’re Not in Mainland China anymore.

With the downturn in China’s economy, our China lawyers are increasingly having to parse China deals that do not have a legitimate Chinese company on the other side? Why is this? Tax avoidance. The new thing we are seeing is individuals from companies wanting to be the signatories to deals with foreign companies. When we question why this is being proposed and make clear that our clients cannot do this, the individual sometimes responds by claiming that he (so far it’s been only males) is registered with the local tax authorities as a sole proprietor or 个体户. If true, this registration would likely solve the problem but so far it has not once been true.

If you do business with an individual not registered as a sole proprietor or with a foreign company without its own China company entity, you expose your company to the following real risks:

  1. If you do business with an individual not registered as a sole proprietor you will likely be deemed to be that person’s employer. This means you must pay approximately 40% in employer taxes and benefits and you must withhold and pay to the government an additional 25% (or so) in employee withholding.
  2. You could be deemed to be doing business in China illegally and that means you need to pay company income taxes and even worse can happen. See Doing Business in China with Deportation or Worse Hanging Over Your Head.
  3. The individual or foreign company can likely breach your contract without any legal repercussions, at least in China. For example, if this individual or company steals your IP, are you really going to sue in China based on a clearly illegal contract?

This is one (of many) reasons why whenever someone requests that we sell them a template contract our answer is ALWAYS the same: Not going to do it. Not at any price. Too risky for you and for us. See China Contract Templates for $99 Each.

Dan Harris

I am a founder of Harris Bricken, an international law firm with lawyers in Los Angeles, Portland, San Francisco, Seattle, China and Spain.

I mostly represent companies doing business in emerging market countries. It has taken me many years to build my network and it takes constant communication and travel to maintain it. My work has been as varied as securing the release of two improperly held helicopters in Papua New Guinea, setting up a legal framework to move slag from Canada to Poland’s interior, overseeing hundreds of litigation and arbitration matters in Korea, helping someone avoid terrorism charges in Japan, and seizing fish product in China to collect on a debt.

I was named as one of only three Washington State Amazing Lawyers in International Law, I am AV rated by Martindale-Hubbell Law Directory (its highest rating), I am rated 10.0 by (its highest rating), and I am a SuperLawyer.

I am a frequent writer and public speaker on doing business in Asia and I constantly travel between the United States and Asia. I most commonly speak on China law issues and I am the lead writer of the award winning China Law Blog ( Forbes Magazine, Fortune Magazine, the Wall Street Journal, Investors Business Daily, Business Week, The National Law Journal, The Washington Post, The ABA Journal, The Economist, Newsweek, NPR, The New York Times and Inside Counsel have all interviewed me regarding various aspects of my international law practice.

I am licensed in Washington, Illinois, and Alaska.

In tandem with the international law team at my firm, I focus on setting up/registering companies overseas (via WFOEs, Rep Offices or Joint Ventures), drafting international contracts (NDAs, OEM Agreements, licensing, distribution, etc.), protecting IP (trademarks, trade secrets, copyrights and patents), and overseeing M&A transactions.