Excellent economic analysis of China by Yiping Huang, a professor of Economics at Peking University and at the China Economy Program at the Australian National University and Barclay Bank Hong Kong’s Chief Economist for Asia. His analysis can be found in an EastAsiaForum article, entitled, “China’s New Growth,” in which Huang talks of how the Chinese government is fine with China’s GDP growth slowing to between 6 to 8 percent per year and of how that is what we should expect going forward. According to Professor Huang, the days of China needing GDP growth of eight percent and above merely to avoid increased unemployment are over. Super high growth was needed in the late 1990s when China’s labor force was increasing by more than ten million people per year, but not now when its labor force is actually declining.
Huang goes on to talk of how China’s external account is balancing out, its currency is probably close to equilibrium and its gini coefficient is improving. Perhaps most importantly, he talks of how the percentage of China’s growth from consumption has risen and is likely to continue to do so, much of it brought about by rising wages, which will soon be followed by rising capital and energy costs:
I have long argued that China’s reform approach can be characterized as asymmetric liberalization, that is, complete freeing of the product markets while heavy distortions are maintained in factor markets. The generally depressed costs of production have the effect of subsidies for the corporate sector but taxes on households. This was the key mechanism contributing to both strong economic growth and growing structural imbalances during China’s reform period.
This pattern has begun to change over the past several years, starting in the labour market. Rapid wage increases squeeze profit margins, slow economic growth and escalate inflationary pressure. They improve income distribution, since low-income households rely more on labour income, while high-income households depend more on corporate profits and investment returns. Rising wages also redistribute income from the corporate sector to households and, therefore, boost consumption as the share of household income in GDP increases.
China’s new growth model is still in its early stages. So far, we have only seen the first wave of cost shocks — changes in the labour market — which have a significant impact on labour-intensive manufacturing industries. The second wave of cost shocks — a rise in the costs of capital and energy — has just started. This could affect state-owned, highly leveraged and heavy industries more dramatically because they were previously built on a distorted cost structure. Consolidation of heavy industries could lead to the first recession of the Chinese economy since the beginning of its economic reforms.
This will not necessarily lead to a period of stagnant growth, as analysts such as Michael Pettis suggest. While cost normalization would shrink economic activity in the state sector, it should benefit the non-state sector, which accounts for 80 per cent of total industrial output.
I think Huang is right and I think what this means for foreign companies is what we have been saying on this blog for years:
- Yes, China is still the factory to the world. But it is also a great and ever-improving market for goods. And I don’t want to act like a TV ad pitchman, but for most products (both consumer and b2b), the longer you wait to get into China, the greater the odds that someone else will have established what should have been your market share. For what it takes to sell into China, check out the following:
- Via Retail
- Selling Your Product Into China. What You Need To Know
- Selling Into China: The New Wave
- Selling Your Product Into China. Lawyers Need Not Apply.
- Chocolate Fortunes. China’s Consumer Market Writ Large And It Ain’t Easy….
- How To Win Over The Chinese Consumer. What Happens In The Store May Not Stay In The Store
- The Basics On China Retail — Creating Your Own Customers Is The Key
- China Marketing And Branding. Reading The Tea Leaves
- China: No Brands No Cry. What Does Peoria Say?
- Via a Distribution Agreement
- Via a Licensing Agreement
2. China wages and other manufacturing costs are going to continue rising. This means that if you are making a product that can easily be made somewhere less expensive than China, you need to consider China alternatives. For more on your options, check out the following:
- The End Of Cheap China, Part VI. Vietnam, Burma/Myanmar, Globalization, The Next Big Thing, And Falling Wages.=
- China Too Expensive? Who You Gonna Call? I Say Vietnam.
- Vietnam Over China For Small-Scale Manufacturing. Why Didn’t I Think Of That?
- China Still The Place For Manufacturing
- The End Of Cheap China: Low Costs Eroding
- China/Myanmar Are Incredibly Risky And Difficult. So Run, Don’t Walk To Both Places.
- The End Of Cheap China. What Does It Mean, Anyway?
- The End Of Cheap China, Part VI. Vietnam, Burma/Myanmar, Globalization, The Next Big Thing, And Falling Wages.
- The End Of Cheap China, With A Giant Caveat.
- Will India Challenge China?
- China Polyester Writ Large.
- Foreign Manufacturing In China. Would The Last Company There Please Turn Out The Lights?
3. If Huang is right (and again, I think he is), we should expect the economic power of China’s State Owned Entities (SOEs) to decline and the economic power of China’s privately held companies to increase. Though I think Huang is right on the economics of this, I am not sure if politics will allow this to happen. But if Professor Huang is right, the value of doing business with China’s private companies has just gone up as compared to doing business with China’s SOEs.
What do you think? Do you agree that China’s economy is changing? What ramification do you see China’s Changing Economy having for you or for foreign businesses in general?